Teachers play a vital role in nation-building since they are called the architects of nations. Best teachers always build the foundation of nations on High Ideals and great ambitions by giving the clear roadmap to the students to pursue destination. According to saying of Holy Prophet ( Peace be Upon him) ” I am sent as a teacher in this world”
Teachers can never be bad but the Skilled and efficient teachers always carve and shape the future of Students. Unfortunately, in Pakistan, the teaching is not regarded as a respectable profession since we see that in the western world, the teachers are regarded in high esteem and enjoy the perks and privileges like the legislators and elite civil servants.
The massive politicization, victimization, flawed recruitments, referral systems, corruption and the mass negligence has wreaked havoc with this Noble Profession. The malicious terms are also used for teachers which are beyond the boundaries of respect and Honour.
The quota-based recruitment of Teachers has already invited widespread criticism and wrath of the candidates who fail to obtain the desired level of percentage i.e 60% in recruitment Tests conducted by public and private Testing services such as NTS, PTS, OTS, BTS, Sindh University and Sukkur –IBA (STS).
Despite registering various complaints regarding the errors in the Answer keys, the candidates are not given the benefit of such errors, The Recent recruitment Test for JEST and ECE in Sindh conducted by SIBA has also become controversial Since Very Few candidates managed to obtain 60% Marks in the test whereas 95% of the candidates Failed in the test terming it very difficult or of high standards above their IQ and Knowledge Level.
The Teachers Recruitment Policy has always remained flawed and influenced by the Feudal Lords and the Legislators who always try their best to get their blue-eyed people appointed and these political appointees never attend their duties and have never been found doing their jobs.
This heinous violation of merit at massive scale has significantly led to the destruction of the very fabric of education and the profession has been under fire due to such unscrupulous people who just get the jobs for money and enjoyment not a service to the nation.
The Flawed Recruitment policy to appoint teachers through various testing services is also based on fault lines since these testing services conduct MCQs based tests containing Questions from English, Science, math, GK, Computer and Pedagogy.
The supervisory staff is mostly inefficient and non-vigilant. As result, several ineligible candidates clear the Test by impersonating and using unfair means and become teachers by securing 60% plus Marks in test and given offers letters without conducting an interview and demonstration.
Then, how to make sure that though they have passed the Test and secured the requisite percentage, yet will they be able to teach students in a professional manner? Do they have the proper teaching skills or what teaching methods will they use for imparting education to thoughts?
These are the biggest questions that need to be answered but It is ironic that the teachers who are recruited through testing services are not interviewed thus children are deliberately handed over to these amateurs in education who are mostly unaware how to teach as these are the beneficiaries of this faulty recruitment system that has awarded the safe passage to these ineligible candidates who passed the Test by means of impersonation, unfair means and bribery and in sheer violation of the merit.
The meritorious candidates whose loftiest dream was just teaching are mostly deprived of teaching jobs and become the victims of this faulty recruitment system that is heavily politicized.
The Heavily politicized Education department has already given birth to various problems such as substandard Education, lack of Teaching, Training and Motivation skills, lack of reading and writing Skills. The Faultlines have plagued the whole education system has caused rising copy culture and inefficiency that has eaten Education system like a termite.
If we peep in the past, we will have the precedence of impersonation, unfair means and bribery in various recruitment tests conducted by these traditional Testing services with mushrooming growth and have been squeezing the poor candidates in the guise of Testing fee and conducting the professional testing without following the International quality standard operating procedures. These so-called testing services have gobbled millions of rupees on the pretext of testing fee and giving nothing in return only OMR sheet and the question Paper to candidates during the test.
There are some reports that the contracts of conducting various recruitments tests are awarded on nepotism and favouritism since It was evident HEC had announced to conduct Test itself and even established its own Testing service but afterwards succumbed to exerted pressure from the supporters of These traditional testing services and shut up its own testing service namely Education testing Council leaving the candidates at the mercy of these money grabbing Testing services.
The corruption, mismanagement, lack of proper scrutiny, rampant impersonation in the recruitment tests, have raised various question marks over the authenticity and credibility of these Testing services calling for the government to mull over this issue.
Either the government should give requisition to Public Service Commission’s (Federal and Provincial) to conduct these recruitment Tests specially the recruitment tests of Teachers or should toughen the conditions for carrying out recruitment tests by following due procedure of Scrutiny, identification, biometric verification and ensuring that no impersonating person appears on behalf of original candidates to get him passed or qualified for the appointment depriving the deserving candidates of their right.
It is pertinent to say that Government should review the Recruitment policy and bring changes in the recruitment process through the introduction of Descriptive Tests, Interviews and Demonstration wherever Applicable so that deserving meritorious candidates should find the way to this elevated position and noble profession.
Furthermore , the passing ratio of recently conducted recruitment test by Sukkur IBA may be lowered to 40% to 45 % as was done in the recruitment phase of school Head Masters so that maximum candidates may be declared as Qualified followed by conducting Interviews to be conducted by the committee comprising the members from the District Education Department, Public Service Commission and from the Secretariat of Education department i.e Section Officer ,Deputy secretary etc , so that meritocracy may prevail and the standard of education may be improved with induction of best teachers who may boost the stagnant literacy rate .
There should be national Teacher Recruitment council just like PMDC and PEC so that all the aspiring teachers must be registered with the National and Provincial Teacher recruitment councils and the council should play the role of managing the various level of teachers starting from Primary, Elementary, Secondary, Higher Secondary Level.
The National Teachers Recruitment Council may maintain the database of teachers and even place them on outsourcing to help a qualified teacher get jobs in the Public and Private sector.
The new recruitment policy for the teachers may be envisaged so that qualified teachers may get the chance to be the part of Public sector institutes and raise the standard of Education by bringing it at par with International Standards.
The Government of Pakistan especially the Government of Sindh must take notice of irregularities and mismanagement in the recruitment process of Teachers as well as other recruitment tests conducted by mainstream Testing services Companies i.e NTS , PTS ,ITS ,BTS ,UTS ,GTS and Sukkur IBA (STS) and bring some policy changes so that the recruitment tests may be made transparent and free from internal and External involvement which will ultimately contribute to the prevalence of meritocracy and the stoppage of the illegal entry into Government services on the basic of Bribery, impersonation, unfair means or mismanagement and incompetence of the Testing Company.
Macro Economics and its application in Economic System
Macro Economics means a System may be looked at as whole or in terms of its innumerable decisions making units such as consuming units or individual Consumers and household producing Units, Firm, farms, business and mining Concerns. The macroeconomics is, on the whole, is a combination of all components of Economies in a wider sense. It covers all the needs of any country. If the macroeconomics indicator s are favourable to any country, it will become a donor to the developing Country. But the devaluation of the Currency may affect all the Countries who depend on its exchange rates.
Functions and objectives of the Macro Economics:
The functions of the macroeconomicsinclude overall economic study and all the items which come under the domain of the Economy.Be it social, commercial economical segment or component of the economy. It is an integral part of the Economical Development of any country. The development is observed in terms of micro and Macro economical status of any country.
The main objectives of the macro Economics
it denotes the usesof taxes and Government Expenditure. The Government Expenditure come into tact in distinct forms. First the Government Purchases these comprise Goods and services. The other part is the taxation Policy affects
The second major instrument of the macroeconomics is the monetary policy which the government conducts through managing national money.
Imports and Exports
The macroeconomics indicator depends a lot on imports and exports of the country. If the country like the US finding rich markets in any part of the World then it will access the buyers market and export its goods. The demand depends on the quality of the Product in the international markets. The More standard the product, the more buyers will be involved and similarly, it will increase the demand for the product in international markets. The country which needs the products will import the goods of its demand from then exporting Countries. Thus, these are also integral parts of the macroeconomics.
Foreign Exchange Rates
The foreign exchange rates are determined through the Oil and goldreserves and based on the import of certain products. There are stocks exchanges Present in every country for Forex trading. Many people are benefiting from currency trading. Especially the DOLLAR. EURO and Pounds Sterling.
Devaluation of Dollar and Impact on other Countries
As it was already mentioned that most Countries depend on the Currency of Dollar for its Exchange policy. So if the government of the United States increases the value of Dollar so it will affect the countries dependent on Dollar and their debt will multiply. Whereas if the US Government lowers the Currency then it will affect all the Forex trading and currency-trading people besides the countries whose economy depends upon the Dollar s thus Us can influence the economies of the other country
In nutshell, it is clear that the macroeconomics is an integral part of the Economy of any country and helps them to sustain their economy and bring some economic reforms and make Fiscal and Monetary policy to escape deficit budgeting and other Components related with the Economy. It also helps the Country to draft policies of trade development and export promotion.
Managing Human Resource in Multiple Environments: The Challenges and Possibilities
Introduction: The Human Resource Management (HRM) is an academic theory and a business practice that is connected with the theoretical and practical techniques of managing a staff . its theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees or the staff are individuals with changing goals and needs, and it should not be considered as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets.
The workers take a positive view of Field thinking that all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively and that the main obstacles to their endeavours are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process. The Human Resource Management is considered to be the part of a business or company which recruits, develops and utilizes an organization’s personnel in the way which would benefit the firm’s aims and objectives. It creates alignment between an organization’s HRM strategy and the core objectives of a business considered as essential.
Human Resource Management (HRM) is all about managing people, human capital and culture for business success. The human resources management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies.
Human Resource Management is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. The techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can understand the workforce, and to provide the resources needed for them to accomplish their assignments. Thus Human Resource Management techniques, when properly practised, seem to be expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall.
Nowadays, it has concerned synonyms such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe those activities that are necessary for the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, by which Staff is administered. These activities require regulatory knowledge and effort, and enterprises can benefit from the recruitment and development of personnel with these specific skills. Academic theory
Human Resource Management aims to help an organization or Institution to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. The academic theory of Human Resource Management is that humans should not be considered machines. Therefore, we should have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the workplace. The Fields such as psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, sociology, and critical theories: postmodernism, post-structuralism play a major role. Many colleges and universities offer bachelor and master degrees in Human Resources Management.
The activities of Human resource managers are involved such as interviewing applicants, staff training, and dealing with laws and regulations within employment. Human Resource Management is composed of seven interlinked activities taking place with organizations.
The seven major HR management activities are given below:
- Strategic HR Management
- Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
- HR Development
- Compensation and Benefits
- Health, Safety, & Security
- Employee & Labor Relations.
Within these activities, there are external forces involved such as legal, economic, technological, global, environmental, cultural/geographic, political, and social–which significantly affect HR activities and how they are designed, managed, and changed.
Resource Manager” and that is the only change. Empowerment has been noted as an HRM practice which by critics has been noted more as a pseudo-empowerment, based on attitudinal shaping Other such HRM practices have been noted as hidden within rhetoric, and many examples particularly within call centres are much more Orwellian, and hide the reality, through attitudinal shaping.
Today, unions remain a controversial topic. Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act, the closed-shop arrangement states employees (outside the construction industry) are not required to join a union when they are hired. Union-shop arrangements permit employers to hire non-union workers contingent upon their joining the union once they are hired. The Taft-Hartley Act gives employers the right to file unfair labour practice complaints against the union and to express their views concerning unions.
The Human Capital: Carmeli, A and Schaubroeck, J argues that “having higher levels of human resources capital were strongly associated with performance only when top managers perceived that these resources provided distinctive value in terms of being highly valuable, inimitable, rare, and no substitutable”
For this reason, the motivation of employee is at the heart of how innovative and productive things get done within the work organization. Before studying the different ways to motivate, we have to give a clear definition of the word “motivation”. Bloisi, W argues that “motivation involves a conscious decision to perform one or more activities with a greater effort that one performs other activities competing for attention”.
Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing the skills and abilities as used unemployment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. Many early economic theories refer to it simply as labour, one of three factors of production, and consider it to be a commodity — homogeneous and easily interchangeable. Other conceptions of labour are more sophisticated Origin of concept History
The term human capital was first discussed by Arthur Cecil Pigou: “There is such a thing as investment in human capital as well as investment in material capital. So soon as this is recognized, the distinction between the economy in consumption and economy in investment becomes blurred. For, up to a point, consumption is an investment in personal productive capacity. This is especially important in connection with children: to reduce unduly expenditure on their consumption may greatly lower their efficiency in after-life. Even for adults, after we have descended a certain distance along the scale of wealth so that we are beyond the region of luxuries and “unnecessary” comforts, a check to personal consumption is also a check to investment.
Global Presence of Companies: The global debate is on regarding the fair distribution of human capital between the countries. This points to the educated individuals, who typically migrate from poorer places or developing countries to richer places seeking opportunity, making ‘the rich richer and the poor poorer’. When these workers migrate, generally, their early care and education are benefited by the country where they move to work and live their lives. And, when they have health problems or retire, their care and retirement pension will typically be paid in the new country.
Historical HRM from 19th to 20th Centuries: During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, The Human Capital in the United States had become considerably more valuable as the need for skilled labour came with newfound technological advancement. These new techniques and processes also required further education than normally of primary schooling, which hence led to the creation of more formalized schooling across the nation.
The early insight into the need for education allowed for provided a Shift to US productivity and economic prosperity when compared to other world leaders at the time. The rights and freedom of individuals who travelled for the want of opportunity, despite some historical exceptions such as the Soviet bloc and its “Iron Curtain”, seem to consistently outweigh the rights of nation-states that nurture and educate them it’s worth mentioning that, the ability to have mobility with regards to where people want to move and work is a part of their human capital. They were able to move from one place to another.
HRM in Several Environments: Being increase in competition, locally or globally, organizations must become more adaptable, resilient, agile, and customer-focused to succeed. And within this change in environment, the HR professional has to evolve to become a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate, and a change mentor within the organization. To succeed in this term, HR must be a business-driven function with a thorough understanding of the organization’s big picture and be able to influence key decisions and policies. The focus of today’s HR Manager is on strategic personnel retention and talents development.
HR professionals can be e coaches, counsellors, mentors, and succession planners to help motivate an organization’s members and their loyalty. The HR manager will also have to promote and fight for values, ethics, beliefs, and spirituality within their organizations, especially in the management of workplace diversity as compared to the WorkForce of various states. Many companies now have realized the advantages of a diverse workplace.
As many of them are going local in their market expansions either physically or virtually (for example, E-commerce-related companies), there is a necessity to employ diverse talents to understand the various niches of the market. If want to take the example of China when it was opening up its markets and exporting their products globally in the late 1980s, the Chinese companies (such as China’s electronic giants such as Hair) were seeking the marketing expertise of Singaporeans. This was due to Singapore’s marketing talents were able to understand the local China markets relatively well (almost 75% of Singaporeans are of Chinese descent) and as well as being attuned to the markets in the West due to Singapore’s open economic policies and English language abilities.
Similarly, if we take the Example of Microsoft a Global company and No1Software Company has some values to work in different environments. They are adaptable to any Culture or norms and rules of the Country because they employ the local Talent there besides their working capital already they have with. They rely on local Partners as entrepreneurs for their sales and marketing. In this Line, Google has done remarkable by establishing sites of Various Countries in their languages which have helped them to go forward and become the biggest advertising company for Web.
Billion of ads shown on site as ad words but the main thing they employ the Local talent for boosting their sales. Yahoo is also an International Company in competition with Google and Microsoft. But it shares went down due to improper Human Resource and improper understanding of the local markets of the Various Countries.
Conclusion: Finally, If the Human Resource Management Theory assessed globally, it has brought a revolution in outsourcing and hiring of the staff. It has opened the Vistas of talent and opened the doors of the talent to the Globe. Now opportunities are not limited to the particular Countries. The HRM has proved vital for the Biggest Companies such as Sony, Samsung, Motorola and LG also. They have the same phenomena of taking the products menus in the local languages to sell and market their Products through the Local Human Resource.
Disparities and Protests
The people of Pakistan have experienced a strange history of protests and their economical repercussion on individuals and the country as a whole.The protests bring the cities to a standstill, as the angry mobs cause blockade through the streets, roads and main national highways.
The protests are taken out by the political parties, civil society for the human rights or demanding justice for any injustice with any person or any brutal murder and the employees protesting for their salary raise, allowances, structure, bonuses, privatization of govt enterprises and regularization issues.
Even excessive regulation issues irk the employees to adopt the way of protests as such laws and regulation might endanger their jobs.
The protests are also carried out by the families and relatives to mourn the deaths of their near and dear ones who lost their lives in the fake police encounters or forcible disappearance of people demanding their recovery. These include various nationalists, suspects and other persons.
The protests include traffic jams, hunger strikes, long marches, sit-ins, protest demos. Though, these types of protests are globally held even in developed countries like the US, UK, Germany and the popular Yellow vest movement in France is an example.
Pakistan’s last seven decades are also replete with such protests whenever any elected government failed to deliver or marshal laws that practised authoritarian rule to suppress the dissenting voices or when people felt that their right to freedom of expression is compromised by dictatorial leadership.
The angry mobs take to streets and record their protests in favour of their genuine demands. Such protests have so far been very successful and the government is compelled to bow down before these employees’unions, civil society, and political workers and disperse the protesters after dialogue process because the use of force will further aggravate the situation and turn the scene into a battleground if the situation is mishandled by law enforcement agencies.
There are several examples of such circumstances in the past that made it very difficult for the governments to deal with such violent protests. The resistance and resilience go hand in hand when both the protesters and the high ups and policymakers show their stubbornness to accept the demands.
This leads to “wheel jams”, “pen down” protest demos and hunger strikes putting governments under immense pressure leaving no other option except the acceptance of their demands to peacefully disperse violent mobs who engulf the executive’soffice and try to cross the Red Zone.
The protests become more extreme when religious parties take to roads against any religious or blasphemy issue.
It is pertinent to mention here that mostly the top bureaucrats consider themselves superior creatures that is because they pass such exam that is branded as Central Superior Services atfederal level and provincial management service at provincial level .
Their lethargic attitude leads to the protests since employees consider it the last option to put pressure on the top bureaucracy with coverage of media as service tribunals and courts don’t offer any timely relief for such affected employees whose services are either terminated, suspended or dismissed on various reasons. Even high costs of advocates are too heavy for them to afford to fight their case.
If we take the example of the education and health departments, the secretary level bureaucrats feel that they are experts in policy making for these key social sector departments but the fact is that these departments could be run smoothly by the executive officers from the health and education since they understand the technical terms and needs of the departments more effectively than these civil servants who can only handle office and revenue related tasks .
It is ironic that there is no quota of gazetted officers from education and health departments to be posted as secretaries, additional secretaries and section officers.
It is disappointing to note that if any Grade 17, 18, 19 and 20 officer is posted at a secretariat in his/her parent department, these top bureaucrats challenge the appointment as ‘non-cadre.’
It is beyond understanding that despite being the production of teachers, these civil servants consider the teachers incompetent to run the affairs of their own department.
It is sheer injustice to note that when we compare the perks and privileges of both civil servants and other teaching and admin cadre officers, we are astonished to see such huge disparities between their pay packages. Even government confers special allowances and perks upon the employees of President House, PM house, Senate, National Assembly, Governor House, CM house and Secretariat employee such as utility allowances, pay bonuses, house rent and other privileges which are not provided to any employee serving at divisional, district and tehsil level.
The perks such as time scale, increments are offered to one department while another department is deprived of such perks.
There is no unified or uniform pay package that is causing discontent and sense of deprivation. Our judiciary enjoys high pay packages and they should also pass ruling to bring the pay package in the same stage in lieu of grades to address the anomalies.
It means all gradesirrespective of their departments should make the same salary if the violent protests and pen down strikes are to be avoided.
It is also worthy to mention here that the pay packages of the employees of corporate enterprises such as PIA, OGDCL, SSGC, SNGPL, and PPL etc are five times higher with fringe benefits such as unlimited health facilities, free education and scholarships and overtime facilities that are rare in other departments.
Such high-level disparities warrant that govt should address the variance in the pay packages of government employees, project based positions and corporate employees so that anomalies could be resolved.
The pay and pension commission should review the situation in the upcoming Annual Budget 2019-2020 to provide relief to those who are deprived of such perks and privileges that are available to other employees.
It is unjust to favour some employees working in Federal and Provincial Secretariats i.e President House, PM House, Senate , National Assembly , Governor House , CM House, Provincial Assemblies Secretariats while deprivingothers who are also governed under the same Civil Servant rules.
The policy of postings, transfers, promotions and regularization must be revised and a quota with ratio of 60:40 should be approved in each department. The promotion cases must be dealt on an annual basis to avoid the disappointment of employees as it affects their output.
The civil services reforms are the need of the hour so that administrative unbalance could be fixed and protests of deprived employees could be averted by providing them with their due right of promotion, confirmation, regularization etc.
I recall the case of some teachers who were appointed through recruitment tests conducted by Professional Testing Services such as NTS, Sindh University, Sukkur IBA and other agencies in a transparent manner by Sindh Government but after completion of their contract, they are protesting for their confirmation since govt is bound to regulate the services of such teachers.
Is it justified that teachers should protest for their rights on the streets of Karachi while police baton charges them and uses tear gas and water cannons to disperse them?
Finally, it’s pertinent to add that unless the disparities are addressed, the protests will continue. Even the use of force will be counterproductive and may create serious repercussions beyond the control of government.
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